A pull quote from  NY Times, in an article reviewing offerings at the annual Berlin Film festival:

 [ “My point is not that these movies are interchangeable, or that their similarities betray a lack of imagination on the part of their makers. A genre is not a formula but a paradigm, an endlessly variable model that can be adapted to different temperaments and circumstances. Directorial acumen, agile screenwriting and sensitive acting distinguish the run-of-the-mill from the genuinely interesting.” ]


  • Genre is a means of categorising texts that share similar features.
  • Genre is a collection of paradigms with audience expectiation. Audience get pleasure from recognising key conventions of a particular genre,allowing them to predict narrative outcomes and to anticipate chareaters’ behavior , and  slight varriation from that genre.
  • All media is mediated, classified and regulated.
  • For producer: establishing the genre of a media text allows producers to attract audiences to products. G is made in mkting material eg posters ,trailers.
  • For audience: recognise the features of a genre and are attracted through recognition, repetition of conventions , and therefore expectation of what is to come.

Genre-Sub genre- Hybridity

Hybridity texts that exhibit features of more than one genre.

Theory: repetition and difference, systems of expectation, classification,conventions ,standardised practice, paradigms, intertextuality.

  • repetition and difference: Genre is established through repetition which enables audiences to recognise conventions and relate them to specific genres and programmes. But the emphasis on sameness does not work when we come to audiences’ enjoyment of genre. Genreare no longer seen as sets of fixed elements,constantly repeated, but as woking with ‘repertoires of elements’ or fluid systems of conventions and expectations.In the other words, genres are fluid and changing ,and adapt to the canges in society and audiences.
  • standardised practices :for the owners of media industries, they are a profitable part of making genre products.
  • paradigm(codes of convention): iconography  , structure(disequilibrim , enigma)  , theme
  • intertextuality: the variety of ways in which media and other texts interact with each other,rather than being unique or distinct.
  • classification: media products are classified by makers, viewers(consumer),and reviewers. BBFC: E /U /PG /PG12 /12 /15 /18 /R18 . e.g. Hereafter is 12A
  • Conventions are the —–repertoire of elements that texts belonging to the same genre havein common.—–they are the aspects that an audienceexpect to see in a specific media text.——-Help audiences to recognise the genre . (hand-held cameras –realism–ducumentary)—-grouped under headings of character, narrative events, iconography , setting, technical and audio codes.
  • Iconography: related to the objects, costumes and backgrounds. these help to define the genre and raise audiences’ expectations.costume and cloting are important. Props and objects can give information about cultural differences.


  1. Ways of categorising texts-balance between industry and audience perceptions and needs
  2. Woking with iconography
  3. Genre definers- iconographic moments
  4. Mainstream and alternative texts(?)
  5. Genre and social ideologies
  6. Significance of genre for meida producers
Conclution: producers of media texts are constantly looking for new formats or to manipulate existing formats in order to maintain and attract audiences. These mutations are also closely related to how audiences respond to specific genres and their changing expectations linked to social and cultural change.

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